Kabul Afghanistan History

The capital Kabul has undergone several changes since the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. Kabul is located in the middle of the Middle East, between the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and has a thousand-year history.

The city was once the capital of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and its capital Kabul. After his death in 1747, he founded the unitary state, which covered most of what is now Afghanistan. The Taliban declared Afghanistan an "Islamic Emirate" in 2001, leading to the formation of a new government in Kabul and the establishment of an independent state in the northeast.

The Soviet invasion and the subsequent rule of the Taliban, who lived in a pre-revolutionary Afghanistan that had not yet been devastated by them. Although they commanded the largest Pashtun army and were present in southern Afghanistan, they controlled barely any of Afghanistan's Pashtun areas.

Britain fought to counter Russian domination of Central Asia, occupying large swathes of Afghanistan. This policy led to an epic defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire and its ally, the Soviet Union. Afghanistan had a brief taste of modern war when British planes bombed Jalalabad and Amanullah's palace in Kabul.

When invading Muslims reached what is now Afghanistan in the early years of the twentieth century, with the help of Britain and the Ottoman Empire, Kabul fell into the hands of the Islamic invasion.

Kabul became the capital of the Kushano-Hephthalite kingdom of Kapisa, known as Kabul Shahan, and the Durrani dynasty, which eventually controlled areas in Persia and India. In 1994, the Taliban developed enough power to capture Kandahar from local warlords and expanded their control over all of Afghanistan by seizing Kabul in September 1996. The capital of the modern Afghan state of Kandahari was founded in the early 1990s as a result of an alliance between the Afghan Taliban and Taliban leader Mullah Omar.

As more coalition troops entered Afghanistan and began to rebuild the war-torn country, Taliban forces in Pakistan began to regroup.

Under Soviet occupation, Afghans who had sought refuge in Iran, Pakistan, and other countries during the Afghan civil war returned to their homeland. In 1994, a movement that had emerged from religious schools of Afghan refugees in Pakistan had also developed into a political and religious force in Afghanistan. Pakistan has tended to support Afghanistan's Sunni Islamist parties, which were predominantly Pashtun. Since the end of World War II, a large number of Afghans had sought refuge from the Soviet Union and the US military occupation.

Current Afghan President Hamid Karzai claims that Pakistan, especially the Musharraf regime, has used its military and ISI to destabilize Afghanistan and support the insurgency. Over the next decade, ISAF and Afghan forces led many offensives against the Taliban, but could not defeat them completely. Taliban attacks increased and intensified as militants from Pakistan's tribal areas entered eastern Afghanistan. Afghanistan's leaders and NATO leaders joined them in criticizing Pakistan for not ending its support for militants in areas bordering Afghanistan.

One commander, Ismail Khan, controlled Herat in western Afghanistan and was defeated by the Taliban in September 1995. The Taliban also fought the self-proclaimed Islamic State, which is a rival of al-Qaida and has an estimated 2,500 members in Afghanistan. By the late 1990 "s, the Taliban had been driven out of most of Afghanistan with the help of US and NATO troops, but they gave up Kabul, though there have been attempts to retake the city in recent years, notably in 2001 and 2003.

After Bhutto's second government was dissolved by Pakistan's president, the ISI regained control of its Afghanistan policy, even as the Taliban grew into a formidable force. From 1979 to 1989, New Delhi had very limited contact with the Soviet Union and its Kabul government. Instead, India's relations with communist governments in Afghanistan were strong, and in the early 1990 "s, under mounting international pressure, it withdrew from Afghanistan to end the Soviet-Afghan war. When the Taliban emerged, India continued to support the Northern Alliance, which was established shortly before its victory in Kabul in 1996.

In October 1997, the Taliban government changed the name of the country to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The Taliban were overthrown in 2001 and a new government formed, and on 20 December 2001 Kabul became the capital of an Afghan transitional government that transformed into the current Afghan government, led by a US-backed President Hamid Karzai. Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world, with a persistent Taliban insurgency and high levels of poverty.

In 1994, they seized control of southern Afghanistan, forcing dozens of local leaders to surrender, and in 1996 the Taliban captured the capital Kabul. The Taliban established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and introduced a strict form of Sharia law, which led to sex trafficking and massacres, including the murder of hundreds of thousands of women and children, as well as rape and torture. While the Iranian-backed Shiite militia of Ahmad Massoud was crushed by the Taliban, the Taliban succeeded in driving the Taliban out of the Kabul area in the late 1990 "s, but southern and eastern Afghanistan were under the control of local commanders, and the country was ruled by the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), a coalition of Taliban forces. In 1996, Taliban leader Mullah Omar and his son Mullam Mohammad Omar took control of Kandahar city and captured it.

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