Kabul Afghanistan Culture
Talks on peace in Afghanistan have gathered momentum in recent weeks as Kabul prepares to welcome hundreds of ethnic, religious and tribal leaders to conclude a peace deal to end nearly 18 years of war. President Hamid Karzai has called on "American troops" to leave "Afghan villages" and withdraw after US soldiers killed 16 Afghan civilians in their homes.
In defiance of international protests, the Taliban carried out its threat to destroy Buddhist statues in Bamiyan, Afghanistan, saying it was an affront to Islam. The Taliban want to establish an "Islamic government" in Afghanistan, led by a religious leader and drawing legitimacy from clerics. Islam is the country's most important religion and is practiced by more than 90 percent of Afghanistan's population, which includes nearly 1.5 million people.
Despite the enormous differences in language and culture in Afghanistan, the majority of people lead similar lives: almost all Afghans follow Islamic traditions, eat similar foods, celebrate the same holidays, and follow ultraconservative Islam. Most Afghans, exhausted by years of drought, hunger, and war, approve of the Taliban because they uphold traditional "Islamic" values. Afghanistan's largest single ethnic group is bebe, a particularly large tribe of Pashtuns or Ghilzai who form the backbone of their movement. They live in rural areas of Afghanistan, where the war has hit hardest and where life has hardly improved, and suffer from the harsh living conditions in a country of more than 1.5 million people, many of whom live in poverty.
The Hazaras, often viewed as inferior by other Afghans, tend to be more conservative than their Pashtuns, many of whom lived or trained in exile during the years of conflict in Iran or Afghanistan. The Hazars, often seen as superior or inferior to the country's other ethnic groups in other Afghanistan, have tended to be less tolerant of the Taliban and other religious and political movements in Afghanistan because of their religious beliefs and beliefs in Islam, though many have been in exile, in education, or even married after years of conflict.
Today, in the post-Taliban era, most Afghans "daily lives revolve around the need to rebuild a war that has been ravaged. Kabul was in ruins after a devastating civil war in 1992-96, and the Taliban failed to meet basic needs. Afghanistan's national cricket team, which represents the country in international competition, has played its home matches in its home cities because of security issues that Afghanistan faced in the 1990s and early 2000s. Unlike other parts of the world, such as Pakistan and India, Kabul has no minarets.
Kabul, the capital, is the largest in Afghanistan with three - and half a million inhabitants. Afghanistan's second-largest city, Kandahar, is the strongest in the insurgency and the most sympathetic on the ground. More than 3.5 million Afghans live there, of whom 2.5 million have returned after the Taliban were driven out, according to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Kabul, the country's third-largest and second-most populous city after Kabul. Afghanistan's population of more than 2.2 million lives in the capital and its suburbs, while two-thirds of them return after the Taliban are removed. More than 1.6 million people live here, out of a total population of about 4.4 million.
In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani united the Pashtun tribes and created Kabul, which is considered the beginning of modern Afghanistan. The city is so popular that it has been used as the capital of Afghanistan's two largest political parties, the Taliban and the Afghan National Congress, and is used by a wide range of ethnic groups, including Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims. After a visit to Kabul in 1333, he wrote that he had travelled from a village inhabited by tribes of the Persians (called Afghans) to the city now occupied by Kabul. The Taliban declared Afghanistan an "Islamic Emirate" in 2001, prompting a crackdown by the US government and its allies in the Middle East.
In 1512, the ruler Babur had his capital in Kabul, and by that time the Pashtuns had spread from Afghanistan to the newly established Pakistan. Khan wanted a united "Pashtun" people, but as the Mughals extended their power to India, Afghanistan developed from a mere fringe of the empire to its center.
Historically, the word "Afghan" was used to refer to an ethnic group also called Pashtuns, but today Afghanistan is multicultural and multi-ethnic, with many ethnic groups and ethnicities, such as the Hazaras, Hazars, Tajiks and many other groups. The "Pashto" in "Pashtun" is a reference to the ethnic origin of the people of Afghanistan as a whole, not to any ethnic or religious group.
As for refugees, they are the result of decades - the long war against the Soviets that devastated the country in the 1980 "s. It killed up to two million Afghans, produced more than six million refugees, and provided decades of television news in the West.